The development of an effective HIV vaccine is still hampered by the lack of clearly defined immune correlates of HIV control. Although a number of immune markers have been associated over last years with relative viral control and slower HIV disease progression, these associations
are oftentimes complicated by the causality dilemma that does not allow to directly assign cause or effect to the identified parameters. In addition, many of these immune markers may act in concert or represent surrogate makers for otherwise controlled HIV infection. This review will revisit
the current knowledge of host genetic and immune markers and their associations with HIV control, particularly examining the roles of virus-specific T cells and humoral immune responses and testing their role as direct correlates of control.
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