Skip to main content

Local Renin-Angiotensin II Systems, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and its Homologue ACE2: Their Potential Role in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, Pulmonary Hypertension and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Buy Article:

$63.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract:

Renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone axis has long been known as a regulator of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Yet, local renin-angiotensin II systems have been discovered and novel actions of angiotensin II (AngII) have emerged among which its ability to act as a immunomodulator and profibrotic molecule. The enzyme responsible for its synthesis, Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE), is present in high concentrations in lung tissue. In the present paper, we review data from studies of the past decade that implicate AngII and functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene that increase ACE activity with increased susceptibility for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and for pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, drugs that inhibit the synthesis of AngII (ACE inhibitors) or that antagonize its actions on its receptors (Angiotensin II receptor blockers -ARBs) have been shown to provide beneficial effects. Another recent discovery reviewed is the presence of a homologue of ACE, ACE2, which cleaves a single amino acid from AngII and forms a heptapeptide with vasodilatory actions, Ang 1-7. The balance between ACE and ACE2 is crucial for controlling AngII levels. ACE and ACE2 also appear to modify the severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), with ACE2 playing a protective role. Finally, mention is made to the recent discovery of ACE2 as a receptor for the SARS Corona Virus.





Keywords: ACE; ACE inhibitors; ACE2; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Angiotensin II; Angiotensin II receptor blockers; COPD; asthma; homeostasis; pulmonary hypertension

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/092986711796642562

Publication date: 2011-08-01

More about this publication?
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more