Interactions Between Clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors: A Review of Evidence
Abstract:Clopidogrel is a thienopyridine, which inhibits the platelet P2Y adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor termed P2Y12. It is taken as a prodrug that requires biotransformation to an active metabolite by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes. In addition, esterases shunt the majority of clopidogrel to an inactive pathway, whilst the remaining prodrug requires two separate CYP-dependent oxidative steps. PPIs might diminish the antiplatelet effects and the clinical effectiveness of clopidogrel possibly through inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes.
Treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin decreases recurrent cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome. However, an inherent increment of major bleeding is also associated with antiplatelet therapy, as well as dyspepsia with aspirin. Also, major bleeding has been associated with high risk for ischemic events and mortality. For this reason, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is often co-prescribed to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal tract bleeding, but its concomitant use might reduce the inhibitory effect of clopidogrel on platelet aggregation. Nevertheless, doubts exist about the possible interaction of concomitant PPI use that may reduce the inhibitory effect of clopidogrel on platelet aggregation. Indeed, there is some controversy with regard to the true risk of cardiovascular adverse events arising from a potential drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and PPI. In this article, we will review the current status and controversies in relation to a possible interaction between clopidogrel and PPIs.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2011
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