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Wounding the Immune System with its Own Blade: HIV-Induced Tryptophan Catabolism and Pathogenesis

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Abstract:

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme which plays a key role in maintaining the physiologic immune balance between the efficient responses to insulting pathogens and the control of harmful autoimmune reactions. During HIV infection, multiple mechanisms involving both viral and cellular components, contribute to enhance IDO expression and activity in an uncontrolled manner. The downstream effects of IDO overactivation collectively contribute to the immune alterations which characterize HIV disease. This review explores the cellular and molecular pathways which result in IDO upregulation during HIV infection and considers the consequences of IDO hyperactivity on the immune system, their relevance in the context of HIV immunopathogenesis and the potential for specific therapeutic intervention.





Keywords: HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus; IDO; IDO overactivation; Immunopathogenesis; Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; autoimmune reactions; immunoregulatory enzyme; pathogens; physiologic immune balance

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986711795656126

Publication date: May 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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