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Macrophage-Assisted Inflammation and Pharmacological Regulation of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway

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Macrophages play an important role in the immune system. They also participate in multiple processes including angiogenesis and triggering of inflammation. The present study summarizes pieces of knowledge on the importance of macrophages in disease, especially the inflammation. Special attention is paid to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) associated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the parasympathetic nervous system. The current pharmacological effectiveness in suppressing the inflammation in general and the septic shock in particular, is limited. CAP was discovered recently and it seems to be a suitable target for the development of new drugs. Moreover, available drugs binding to either nAChR or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are candidates for either an inhibition or enhancement of CAP. Though the current scientific databases do not include all necessary data on the association of CAP with body functions and the research is quite intensive, the objective of the present review is to introduce the current trends and to critically evaluate CAP and macrophage-associated pathways.

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Keywords: Abscess forma-tion; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; Bungarus mul-ticinctus; Chlamydia; Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway; HIV-1 Infection; AIDS; Innate immunity; LEUKOCYTES; Macrophage-Assisted Inflammation; Monocytes; Mycobacteria; Neisseria gon-orrhoeae; Schistosoma; Trypanosoma; acetylcholine receptor; acetylcholinesterase; acetylsali-cylic acid; andcorticosteroids; angiogenesis; anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); antioxidants; arachidonic acid; ascorbic acid; atherosclerosis; cell; cyclooxygenase enzyme; fludrocortisone; glucocorticoids; homeostasis; human leukocyte antigen; hydrocortisone; ibu-profen; infection; inflammation; isobutyl propanoic phenolic acid; lipid kinases; major histocompatibil-ity complex; naproxen; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; parasympathetic nervous system; phagosomes; phosphatases; prophylaxis; prostaglandin; reactive nitrogen species (RNS); septic shock; tumour necrosis factor

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2011-02-01

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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