Inflammation, Adiponectin, Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk
Abstract:The development of atherosclerotic lesions leading to myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke encompasses a cascade of cellular and molecular events that can well be characterized as a chronic immune-mediated inflammation occurring preferentially in the biologic surrounding of the so called metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, chemokines, cytokines, and their receptors are critically involved in the initiation and perpetuation of atherosclerosis, and they play important roles at all levels in the pathogenesis of this disease. Metabolic risk profiles associated with sedentary lifestyle, obesity, especially intra-abdominal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia pave the way for a chronic, immunemediated vascular inflammation around vascular lipid deposits. In the present article, the impact of adiponectin, monocyte and T-cell associated cytokines (with emphasis on Neopterin), individual adipose tissue - distribution, and pleiotropic drug effects on the individual course of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease are reviewed.
Keywords: Adiposity; Hypoxia; Neopterin; T-cell; T-helper lymphocytes of type 1 (Th-1); T-lymphocytes; VSMCs; adiponectin; angiogenesis; anti-atherogenic role; asymmetric dimethylarginine; atherogenesis; atherosclerotic lesions; bioavailibility; cardiovascular disease (CVD); cardiovascular risk; chemokine; cytokine; cytokines; dendritic; endocannabinoids; endothelial NO synthase (eNOS); foam,osteoclast; high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP); homocystein; hypoadiponectinemia; immune-mediated inflammation; intima-media thickness; kappa-B; kappaB ligand; lowdensity lipoproteins (LDL); macrophages; metabolic syndrome; metalloproteinase; monocyte; monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP); myocardial infarction (MI); neopterin,obesity; nitric oxide (NO); nuclear factor; osteoprotegerin; oxidation; reactive oxygen species (ROS); remodelling; rheumatoid arthritis (RA); sympathetic nervous system; systemic disease; systemic lupus erythematodes
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2010-12-01
- Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.