Antioxidants in Treating Pathologies Involving Oxidative Damage: An Update on Medicinal Chemistry and Biological Activity of Stobadine and Related Pyridoindoles
Pathologies involving oxidative stress are indicative of malfunction of endogenous antioxidant capacity. Numerous efforts were made to design and synthesize biologically active antioxidants and free oxygen radical scavenging substances that could improve the endogenous antioxidant status. The antioxidant and reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging activity of STB was well demonstrated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. These properties of STB seem to be closely related to its beneficial effects in models of oxidative-stress-involving pathologies, including myocardial infarction, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, hypoxic-ischemic tissue injury, diabetic complications, chronic inflammation, etc. STB has a good affinity to lipids and exerts its protective activity against free-radical-mediated damage by preventing lipid peroxidation. Rather than interacting with the radicals initiating lipid peroxidation, STB was shown to act in its propagation stage via scavenging peroxyl and/or alkoxyl radicals. STB was also found to protect proteins, predominantly by a mechanism involving protection of thiol groups and by preventing oxidation of amino acids. The first findings on antioxidant and pharmacodynamic effects of STB, tested in a variety of biological models, were summarized in 1998. Recently, chemical modification of STB, which we considered as the leading structure, led to the synthesis of pyridoindole derivatives with significantly increased intrinsic antiradical activity and overall antioxidant efficacy compared to the parental molecule. The present paper provides a complete overview of the literature published since 1998 on both STB and STB congeners. Moreover, appropriate structural modifications of STB provided the opportunity to modulate lipophilicity and acidobasic behavior, thus optimizing bioavailability of the novel derivatives and attenuating their unwanted sideeffects, with the result of decreased toxicity. Hence, STB congeners might be prospectively used as medicinal antioxidants, i.e. remedies effective in conditions involving oxidative stress-mediated injury.
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