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Cytotoxic Properties of Clofibrate and other Peroxisome Proliferators: Relevance to Cancer Progression

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Abstract:

The biological activity of peroxisome proliferators (PPs) is mediated by a class of receptors, known as PPARs (PP-Activated Receptor), belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs dimerize with retinoid receptors, translocate to the nucleus, recognize specific PP-responsive elements on DNA and transactivate a number of genes. Several processes are regulated by PPARs, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid uptake and β- oxidation, inflammation, intracellular lipid trafficking, cell proliferation and death. In addition, PPARs have been proposed to act as tumor suppressors or as tumor promoters, depending on the circumstances. In particular, PPs have been extensively studied for their hepatocarcinogenic action in rodents, most often ascribed to their antiapoptotic action. Recent evidence, however, has been provided about the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and differentiation-promoting activities displayed by PPAR ligands. The present review will focus on the cytotoxic effects exerted by several PPs, among which clofibrate, on different types of tumor cells, with particular reference to the mechanisms of cell death and to their relevance to cancer induction and progression.

Keywords: PPAR; Peroxisome proliferators; apoptosis; cancer; clofibrate

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/092986710790192712

Affiliations: Department of Experimental Medicine and Oncology, University of Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Torino, Italy.

Publication date: 2010-02-01

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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