Targeting Farnesoid-X-Receptor: From Medicinal Chemistry to Disease Treatment
Abstract:The farnesoid X receptor (FXRα) is a metabolic nuclear receptor and bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and intestine. Physiological studies have shown that FXR.. exerts regulatory roles in bile acids, lipid and glucose homeostasis. FXR ligands of steroidal and non-steroidal structure have been described. Both ligand groups have shown limitations in preclinical studies regarding their absorption, metabolism, target interactions and intrinsic toxicity. Inhibition of bile acid synthesis and basolateral transporters in the liver as well as reduction of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the plasma are the major unwanted effects seen with these ligands. Several FXRα modulators are currently being generated with the aim of targeting FXRα isoforms by exploiting the relative unselectivity of the ligand binding domain of the receptor. Structure- activity relationship studies have shown that FXRα could be activated by structurally different ligands and that receptor occupancy by these ligands generates different patterns of gene activation as a result of specific conformational changes of the receptor or differential dislodgement of co-repressor or recruitment of co-activators. Generation of modulators that selectively target specific FXRα responsive elements are an interesting strategy to overcome the limitations of currently available FXR ligands.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Universita di Perugia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Via E dal Pozzo, 06122 Perugia, Italy.
Publication date: January 1, 2010
More about this publication?
- Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.