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Development of DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Neoplastic Diseases

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Abstract:

Although chemotherapy is considered the mainstay of cancer therapy, unfortunate side effects of chemotherapy create a continuous demand for developing other novel and specific targets for cancer therapy. Re-expression of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes is a rational strategy for the treatment of human neoplasms. Epigenetic modifiers like DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors and histone deacteylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce the re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, they demonstrate safety and efficacy against neoplastic diseases in clinical trials. DNMT inhibitors like 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine are currently FDA approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. Nonetheless, the mechanism of action behind their clinical efficacy remains unclear. Ongoing clinical trials are attempting to identify tumor suppressor genes that upon re-expression can induce remission and cure in patients. On the other hand, the pleiotropic biological effects of DNMT inhibitors and recent reports demonstrating lack of association between clinical response and methylation reversal of candidate tumor suppressor genes, suggest a complex mechanism behind their clinical efficacy that may involve a cytotoxic effect.

Keywords: 5-azacytidine; DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferases; RG108; decitabine; zebularine

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986709788612738

Affiliations: 1650 Orleans St., CRB1, Rm 216, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

Publication date: June 1, 2009

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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