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Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin D for Multiple Sclerosis

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Abstract:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and has an increasing prevalence in populations residing at higher latitudes. This observation may indicate a protective effect of sunlight exposure, which is reduced at higher latitudes and may contribute to insufficient levels of vitamin D in the MS population. The vitamin D hormone is important for bone metabolism and can regulate cell proliferation and differentiation as well as apoptosis and immune regulation in immune cells such as T helper cells and dendritic cells. Evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and prospective studies on MS suggests an important role of vitamin D as a modifiable environmental factor in MS. These provide guidance for future studies with regard to the potential role of vitamin D in the prevention and/or treatment of MS. Here, we first review the metabolism and immune functions of vitamin D. Then, we describe the current thinking on the etiology of vitamin D in MS and the accumulating evidence pointing to a link between vitamin D and MS. Further, we describe how genetic susceptibility interacts with environmental risk factors at the population level, MS-associated risk factors, and genetic studies related to the vitamin D receptor. This review also discusses the therapeutic potential of vitamin D for treating MS.

Keywords: Vitamin D; cytokines; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; genetics; inflammation; multiple sclerosis; vitamin D receptor

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986708783503159

Affiliations: Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Kita-14, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 Japan.

Publication date: February 1, 2008

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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