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Implantable Electrochemical Sensors for Biomedical and Clinical Applications: Progress, Problems, and Future Possibilities.

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Abstract:

Biosensors are of great interest for their ability to monitor clinically important analytes such as blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. A classic example is to monitor the dynamics of blood-glucose levels for treating diabetes. However, the current practice, based on a three decade old technology, requires a drop of blood on a test strip, which is in dire need of replacement. The increasing demands and interests in developing implantable glucose sensors for treating diabetes has led to notable progress in this area, and various electrochemical sensors have been developed for intravascular and subcutaneous applications. However, implantations are plagued by biofouling, tissue destruction and infection around the implanted sensors and the response signals must be interpreted in terms of blood or plasma concentrations for clinical utility, rather than tissue fluid levels. This review focuses on the potentials and pitfalls of implantable electrochemical sensors and presents our opinions about future possibilities of such implantable devices with respect to biocompatibility issues, long-term calibration, and other aging effects on the sensors.

Keywords: Biocompatibility; Biomaterials; Blood gases; Device; Electrolyte; Glucose; Implantable electrochemical sensor; In vivo monitoring; Membrane

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986707780362970

Affiliations: World Precision Instruments Inc., 175 Sarasota Center Boulevard, Sarasota, Florida 34240,USA.

Publication date: April 1, 2007

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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