The Pathology Induced by Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus: an Update

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Abstract:

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has considerably improved the quality of life and has increased the survival of HIV-infected individuals. Although HAART can successfully suppress viral replication in the long term, it is not without significant toxicity, which can seriously compromise treatment effectiveness. Moreover, the rapid rate of virus mutation and subsequent emergence of drug-resistant HIV variants threaten the longer-term efficacy of HIV treatment. The most common adverse effects caused by HAART include a metabolic syndrome with lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, deterioration in the clinical status due to various exaggerated local and systemic inflammatory reactions during the immunerestoration disease, and various hepatic, peripheral and cardiac muscle, kidney, bone, bone marrow, retinal, ear, and skin toxicities. The heterogeneity in the organs affected by the different drugs and the morphological features observed in tissues in HAART-treated patients raise possible explanations including differential distribution or activation of these agents. Antiretroviral drugs from new classes, as well as new drugs from existing classes with favorable resistance and side effect profiles are in various stages of development. However, new tissue disorders will be certainly described in the future in patients treated with these drugs. The different pathophysiology of the main adverse effects and the less common known side effects of antiretroviral therapy against HIV are described here, with special emphasis on the histological features induced by HAART.

Keywords: AIDS; HIV; antiretroviral therapy; immune restoration syndrome; lipodystrophy; pathology; toxicity

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986706778742891

Affiliations: Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Pasteur's Hospital, BP69, 06002 Nice cedex 01, France.

Publication date: November 1, 2006

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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