Molecular Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Vivo Using Small Molecule Inhibitors for SPECT and PET

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Abstract:

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent secreted or membrane anchored endopeptidases. MMPs are involved in many physiological processes but also take part in the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for a wide range of diseases. Pathological expression and activation of MMPs are associated with cancer, atherosclerosis, stroke, arthritis, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis and liver fibrosis. Thus, noninvasive visualisation and quantification of MMP activity in vivo are of great interest in basic research and clinical application. This can be achieved by scintigraphic molecular imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) provided suitable radiolabelled tracers exist, e.g. radioactive inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPIs). The approach to monitor MMP activity in vivo using radiolabelled small molecule inhibitors suitable for SPECT and PET is summarised in this review. Briefly, latest advances in scintigraphic imaging are introduced and followed by a report about the enzyme class of MMPs. The involvement of MMPs in cancer and atherosclerosis is exemplified and small molecule MMPIs are classified. Subsequently, the development of radiolabelled small molecule MMPIs, their synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation is reviewed. Finally, an outlook on the clinical potential of labelled MMPIs in diagnostic algorithms is given.

Keywords: CGS 27023A; Matrix metalloproteinases; molecular imaging; positron emission tomography PET; radiolabelled inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases; single photon emission computed tomography SPECT

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986706778522002

Affiliations: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Section Radiochemistry, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 33, D-48149 Münster, Germany.

Publication date: October 1, 2006

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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