Development of Ligands for the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor

Authors: James, Michelle L.; Selleri, Silvia; Kassiou, Michael

Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 13, Number 17, July 2006 , pp. 1991-2001(11)

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

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Abstract:

The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) initially characterised as a high affinity binding site for diazepam, is densely distributed in most peripheral organs whilst only moderately expressed in the healthy brain. The predominant cell type expressing the PBR at regions of central nervous system (CNS) pathology are activated microglial cells. Under neuroinflammatory conditions there is an over-expression of PBR binding sites indicating that measurements of PBR density can act as a useful index of brain disease activity. The PBR is now considered a significant therapeutic and diagnostic target which has provided the impetus for PBR ligand development. There are several classes of PBR ligands available including benzodiazepines (Ro5- 4864), isoquinoline carboxamides (PK 11195), indoleacetamides (FGIN-1-27), phenoxyphenyl-acetamides (DAA1106) and pyrazolopyrimidines (DPA-713). Subsequent conformationally restrained isoquinoline and indoleacetamide analogues have been synthesised in an attempt to yield PBR ligands with superior affinity and brain kinetics. Even though the PBR has been linked to a number of biochemical processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, porphyrin transport and immunomodulation, its exact physiological role is yet to be deciphered. Selective PBR ligands with favourable in vivo binding properties and kinetics is required to gain a more complete understanding on the normal functioning of the PBR and the chemical pathways underlying several pathological conditions. Novel PBR ligands with unique binding properties and functional activity may also generate information on the localisation of the PBR and the possibility of PBR subtypes. This review highlights the main classes of PBR ligands to date. In addition the biological activity and therapeutic potential of certain PBR ligands is discussed.

Keywords: Benzoxazepines; Indoleacetamide; Isoquinoline Carboxamides; Pyrazolopyrimidines; Vinca Alkaloids; diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986706777584979

Affiliations: Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road,Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia.

Publication date: July 1, 2006

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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