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High Density DNA Microarrays: Algorithms and Biomedical Applications

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Abstract:

DNA microarrays are devices capable of detecting the identity and abundance of numerous DNA or RNA segments in samples. They are used for analyzing gene expressions, identifying genetic markers and detecting mutations on a genomic scale. The fundamental chemical mechanism of DNA microarrays is the hybridization between probes and targets due to the hydrogen bonds of nucleotide base pairing. Since the cross hybridization is inevitable, and probes or targets may form undesirable secondary or tertiary structures, the microarray data contain noise and depend on experimental conditions. It is crucial to apply proper statistical algorithms to obtain useful signals from noisy data. After we obtained the signals of a large amount of probes, we need to derive the biomedical information such as the existence of a transcript in a cell, the difference of expression levels of a gene in multiple samples, and the type of a genetic marker. Furthermore, after the expression levels of thousands of genes or the genotypes of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms are determined, it is usually important to find a small number of genes or markers that are related to a disease, individual reactions to drugs, or other phenotypes. All these applications need careful data analyses and reliable algorithms.

Keywords: alternative splicing; clustering; gene expression; genotyping; in situ synthesis; microarray; oligonucleotide and photolithography

Document Type: Review Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867043364739

Affiliations: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., 1145 Atlantic Ave., Alameda, CA 94501, USA

Publication date: 2004-08-01

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