Skip to main content

Chemistry of Cyclic ADP-Ribose and its Analogs

Buy Article:

$63.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract:

Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a general mediator involved in Ca2+ signaling, has the characteristic 18-membered ring consisting of an adenine, two riboses and a pyrophosphate, in which the two primary hydroxyl groups of the riboses are linked by a pyrophosphate unit. This review focuses on the chemical synthetic studies of cADPR analogs. These analogs have been used quite effectively in proving the mechanism of cADPR-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathways. These analogs are also expected to be lead structures for the development of drugs. Although cADPR analogs can be synthesized by enzymatic and chemo-enzymatic methods using ADP-ribosyl cyclase, the analogs obtained by these methods are limited due to the substrate-specificity of the enzymes. Consequently, chemical synthetic methods providing a greater variety of cADPR analogs are required. Chemical synthetic studies have demonstrated that the construction of the large 18-membered ring structure is quite difficult. Another problem encountered in the synthesis is the construction of the N1-substituted purine nucleoside structure. The N1- substituted inosine derivatives were prepared by condensation between the N1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)inosine derivatives and the appropriate amines. For the preparation of the N1-substituted adenosine structures, condensation of the 4-cyano-5-(alkoxymethyleneamino)imidazole nucleosides with the appropriate amines was found to be effective. The first chemical construction of the 18-membered ring was achieved using a bisphosphate-type substrate conformationally restricted in the cyclized product-like syn-form around the N9- glycosyl linkage; however, the yield was inadequate. The key 18-membereding construction was significantly improved by employing the phenylthiophosphate-type substrates. When the substrates were activated by AgNO3 or I2 in the presence of molecular sieves in pyridine, the corresponding 18-membered ring products were obtained in high yields. Using this method as the key step, the chemically and biologically stable cADPR mimic, cADP-carbocyclic-ribose (cADPcR), was synthesized. This method has been applied subsequently to the synthesis of various cADPR analogs.

Keywords: adp-ribosyl cyclase; cadpr; cyclic adp-ribose; phenylthiophosphate-type substrates

Document Type: Review Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867043455639

Affiliations: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

Publication date: April 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
ben/cmc/2004/00000011/00000007/art00003
dcterms_title,dcterms_description,pub_keyword
6
5
20
40
5

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more