Iron Chelator Research: Past, Present, and Future
The occurrence of in vivo iron toxicity in the human body can be categorized into iron overload and non-iron overload conditions. Iron overload conditions are common in β-thalassemia and hereditary hemochromatosis patients, and anthracycline mediated cardiotoxicity is an example of a non-iron overload condition in cancer patients, in which the toxicity is iron-dependent.
While hundreds of iron chelators have been evaluated in animal studies, only a few have been studied in humans. Examples of iron chelator drugs are desferrioxamine (DFO), deferiprone (L1), and dexrazoxane (ICRF 187). The compound ICL670 has completed phase II clinical trials and a phase III trial is planned in 2003. TriapineTM is currently in phase II clinical trial as an anticancer agent. CP502, GT56-252, NaHBED, and MPB0201 are examples of new chelators in preclinical / clinical development.
In the past decade, many new viable utilities for iron chelators have been reported. This includes the use of iron chelators as antiviral, photoprotective, antiproliferative, and antifibrotic agents. This review will focus on the status of drug development for the treatment of iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia and the potential use of iron chelators in the prevention and treatment of other diseases.
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: June 1, 2003
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