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Carvedilol: Just Another Beta-Blocker or a Powerful Cardioprotector?

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Abstract:

Beta-blockers have been used to treat ischemic heart disease, due to negative chronotropic and inotropic properties, thus inducing a decrease in myocardial consumption of oxygen and nutrients, allowing a better balance between nutritional needs and the supply provided by the coronary blood flow. Recent developments in cell biology allowed us to understand that not all beta-blockers are equal, as their intracellular mechanisms of action can be very different.

This paper will focus on carvedilol, a non-selective beta-blocker with alfa-blocker properties, currently used to treat hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease. Effects of carvedilol on cardiac mitochondria, their relation to its antioxidant properties, and how these can improve cardiomyocyte resistance to aggression and cardiac function will be discussed.

We will begin by depicting the effect of carvedilol on mitochondrial parameters, namely oxidative phosphorylation, calcium homeostasis and energy production. Then we will focus on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and how the antioxidant properties of carvedilol can be used to minimize oxidative stress, a powerful inducer of MPT. Carvedilol will also be highlighted as an enzyme modulator, focusing on its importance to prevent doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity. The mitochondrial-related mechanism of cardioprotection involving carvedilol will also be addressed, as we will discuss some clinical pieces of evidence showing the importance of mechanisms previously depicted. In conclusion, based upon its molecular mechanisms of action, carvedilol seems to be a unique beta-blocker. These unique characteristics can help us understand the positive impact of carvedilol on the prognosis of patients with heart disease.

Keywords: Carvedilol; antioxidant; cardioprotection; ischemia-reperfusion; mitochondrial permeability transition; reactive oxygen species

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/187152906779010746

Affiliations: Cardiology Department,Coimbra University Hospital, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra,Portugal.

Publication date: 2006-12-01

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  • Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in cardiovascular and hematological disorders e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will contain a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in cardiovascular and hematological disorders. As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for cardiovascular and hematological drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.
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