Linagliptin: A Novel Methylxanthin Based Approved Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor
Abstract:Chemically, methylxanthine nucleus based Linagliptin (BI-1356, BI-1356-BS) is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor, which has been developed by Boehringer Ingelheim in association with Lilly for the treatment of Type-II Diabetes. Linagliptin was marketed by Lilly under the trade name Tradjenta and Trajenta. Linagliptin was approved as the once-daily dose by USFDA on 2 May 2011, for the treatment of Type-II Diabetes. Linagliptin 5mg once daily dose was approved based on a clinical trial program, which was conducted on approximately 4,000 adults with Type-II Diabetes. Linagliptin demonstrated statistically significant mean difference in HbA1c from placebo of up to 0.72 percent, when it was used monotherapically. In patients, who were not adequately controlled on metformin or metformin plus sulphonylurea, the addition of Linagliptin resulted in a statistically significant mean difference in HbA1c from placebo of -0.6 percent. Linagliptin was observed to produce significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to placebo, when used as a monotherapy in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea and/or pioglitazone. Linagliptin demonstrated significant reduction post-prandial glucose (PPG) levels in two hours as compared with placebo in monotherapy as well as in combination with metformin. In vitro assays also anticipated that Linagliptin is a potent DPPIV inhibitor as well as it exhibits good selectivity for DPP-IV as compared with other DPPs. The in-vivo studies also demonstrated same anticipation with respect to Linagliptin. Consequently, increasing the GLP-1 levels so far improved glucose tolerance in both healthy animals. X-ray crystallography anticipates that Linagliptin complexes with human DPPIV enzyme, e.g. butynyl substituent occupies the S1 hydrophobic pocket of the enzyme; the aminopiperidine substituent in the xanthine scaffold occupies the S2 subsite and its primary amine interacts with the key amino acid residues, which involves in the recognition of peptide substrates. In the present review, we have tried to cover comparative study of DPPIV inhibitors, chemistry, physical properties, commercial synthesis, patent portfolio, crystalline polymorphic forms of Linagliptin and its receptor interaction, Pharmacophore rational, mechanism, clinical studies, preclinical, adverse effect, available formulations, dose regimen, co-therapy of Linagliptin, giving emphasis on the medicinal chemistry aspects.
Keywords: Approval; BI-1356; BI-1356-BS; DDP-IV; GIP; GLP-1; Metformin; NIDDM; boehringer ingelheim and lilly; diabetes type-II; dipeptidyl peptidase-IV; emerging target; gliptins; linagliptin; methylxanthines; non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; ondero; tradjenta; trajenta
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Chemistry, Shrimant Madhavrao Scindia, Government Model Science College, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, PIN No. 474001, India.
Publication date: June 1, 2012
- Current Drug Targets aims to cover the latest and most outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of molecular drug targets e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will be devoted to a single timely topic, with series of in-depth reviews, written by leaders in the field, covering a range of current topics on drug targets. These issues will be organized and led by a guest editor who is a recognized expert in the overall topic. As the discovery, identification, characterisation and validation of novel human drug targets for drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.