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Osteopontin; as a Target Molecule for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

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It has been well recognized that inflammatory responses are part of pathogenesis for various disorders such as autoimmune diseases. For example, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system that is presumably caused by activated T cells specific for myelin antigens. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is also a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation in which several inflammatory cytokines are involved. On the other hand, Osteopontin (Opn) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed by activated T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and its expression is up-regulated during inflammation. Secreted form of Opn (s-Opn), which is modified by phosphorylation, glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage with thrombin, has activities as a T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine and as a chemoattractant for many types of cells through integrin receptors and CD44. Recently, it has been uncovered that intracellular form of Opn (i-Opn) is a critical regulator for Toll like receptor-9 (TLR-9), TLR-7- dependent interferon-α (IFN-α) expression by plasmacytoid DCs and Th17 development. In this review, we have summarized recent progress in understanding of Opn's role in variety of inflammatory disorders.

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Keywords: Alpha4 integrin; Apha9 integrin; Autoimmune disease; Conventional DC; Intracellular form of Opn; Plasmacytoid DC; Secreted form of Opn; Thrombin cleaved form of Opn

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 April 2010

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  • Current Drug Targets aims to cover the latest and most outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of molecular drug targets e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will be devoted to a single timely topic, with series of in-depth reviews, written by leaders in the field, covering a range of current topics on drug targets. These issues will be organized and led by a guest editor who is a recognized expert in the overall topic. As the discovery, identification, characterisation and validation of novel human drug targets for drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.
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