Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines photosensitizer, visible light and oxygen, which has the characteristics of high selectivity, minimal invasiveness, low side effect, and allowing repetitive application. The photophysics and mechanisms leading to cell death mediated by PDT have been studied extensively, and PDT has been approved as the modality for superficial tumors and non-cancerous diseases worldwide. For non-dermatogoical applications, the photosensitizers are delivered systemically. Selective therapeutic effect against tumor tissues can be provided by the nature of drugs and tumor physiology. Improved targeting photosensitizer helps preventing damage to the surrounding healthy tissue and lowering dose of drugs and light. The use of nanotechnology in photosensitizer delivery is an attractive approach because nanomaterials may satisfy the need for enhancing PDT efficacy. Recent advances in the use of nanotechnology for PDT application include formulation of biodegradable and non-degradable nanoparticles as passive carriers for photosensitizing agents as well as synthesizing photosensitizer-specific target moiety conjugates for active targeting. This article focuses on passive and active targeting strategies involving nanotechnology to enhance PDT efficacy for cancers.
Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:
In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.