Role of Metabolism in Ocular Drug Delivery
Metabolism is one of the primary routes of drug elimination from the body. This process comprises of mechanisms, such as oxidation and conjugation, which lead to inactivation and / or elimination from hepatic, biliary, pulmonary, renal and ocular tissues. Enzymes involved in metabolism are expressed in various tissues of the body, liver being the primary site. Studies involving ocular tissues have demonstrated the expression of several metabolic enzymes such as esterases, peptidases, ketone reductases, and CYP-450's in these tissues. These enzymes play an important role in ocular homeostasis by preventing entry and / or eliminating xenobiotics from the ocular tissues. Scientists have targeted these enzymes in drug design and delivery through prodrug derivatization. The prodrugs undergo biotransformation to the parent drug by ocular enzymatic degradation. This review examines the distribution pattern of various metabolic enzymes in the ocular tissues, their physiological role and utility in targeted prodrug delivery.
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Document Type: Review Article
Affiliations: Room 108, School of Pharmacy, 5005, Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO, 64110, USA.
Publication date: 2004-12-01
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- Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:
In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.