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Polyisoprenylated proteins (PPs) methylation by polyisoprenylated protein methyl transferase (PPMTase) is counteracted by polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase). This is the only reversible step of the polyisoprenylation pathway as the relative amounts of the acid and ester forms are determined by the two competing reactions. Since PMPMEase and PPMTase may influence both the structural/functional conformations of PPs, a thorough study of these enzymes is essential to our understanding of the structural/functional features of PPs. PMPMEase has been reported under such pseudonyms as human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) because of its apparent broad substrate spectrum. The current study aimed to show the complementarity between its active site and the polyisoprenylated substrates that it metabolizes. Kinetics analysis was conducted with N-, S- and O-substituted substrates using porcine liver PMPMEase and docking analysis using Arguslab. Consistent with the biochemical analysis, the S-ethyl analog yielded an AScore binding energy of -11.32 compared to -13.48, -14.88, -16.15, and -16.81 kcal/mol for S-prenyl (C-5), S-trans-geranyl (C-10), Strans, trans-farnesyl (C-15) and S-all trans-geranylgeranyl (C-20), respectively. The all trans-geranylgeranyl moiety provides the optimal size for active site interactions. The data reveal that the trans,trans-farnesyl and all trans-geranylgeranyl groups, which are reminiscent of endogenous PPs modifications, have the highest affinity for PMPMEase. Since PPs such as monomeric G-proteins are oncogenic, PMPMEase may be viewed as a viable target for anticancer drug development. The analyses reveal the important structural elements for the design of specific PMPMEase inhibitors to serve in the modulation of oncogenic PPs activities. The results also show that hCE1's repertoire of substrates extends beyond xenobiotics to include PPs as its endogenous substrates.
Current Cancer Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular drug targets involved in cancer, e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in cancer. As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for anti-cancer drug discovery continues to grow; this journal has become essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.