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Mucosal Immune Regulation and Vaccines for Helicobacter-associated Gastritis

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Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomach of more than 50% of humans and causes chronic gastritis in most infected individuals. H. pylori has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh gastric environment. In the host infected with H. pylori, various immune cells infiltrate into the infected gastric mucosa and then severe inflammatory responses occur. This severe inflammation, however, is not able to clear H. pylori and the process may contribute to the associated disease pathogenesis. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) might be essential for activation of innate immunity against H. pylori infections. Type 1 helper T cells and regulatory T cells induced in stomach and Peyer's patches play an important role in the associated chronic inflammation. Recently, vaccines targeting various factors associated with H. pylori infection have been developed. This review provides information on the mechanisms of the host immune system response against H. pylori infections and the characteristics of H. pylori that enable it to evade host defenses.





Keywords: Gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Peyer's patch; immunity; inflammation; vaccine

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • Current Chemical Biology aims to publish full-length and mini reviews on exciting new developments at the chemistry-biology interface, covering topics relating to Chemical Synthesis, Science at Chemistry-Biology Interface and Chemical Mechanisms of Biological Systems.

    Current Chemical Biology covers the following areas: Chemical Synthesis (Syntheses of biologically important macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides etc.; Asymmetric synthesis; Combinatorial synthesis; Diversity-oriented synthesis; Template-directed synthesis; Biomimetic synthesis; Solid phase biomolecular synthesis; Synthesis of small biomolecules: amino acids, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleosides; and Natural product synthesis).

    Science at Chemistry-Biology Interface (Chemical informatics; Macromolecular catalysts and receptors; Enzymatic synthesis; Biosynthetic engineering; Combinatorial biosynthesis; Plant cell based chemistry; Bacterial and viral cell based chemistry; Chemistry of cellular processes in plants/animals; Receptor chemistry; Cell signaling chemistry; Drug design through understanding of disease processes; Synthetic biology; New high throughput screening techniques; Small molecular array fabrication; Chemical genomics; Chemical and biological approaches to carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids design; Chemical and biological regulation of biosynthetic pathways; and Unnatural biomolecular analogs).
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