Apoptotic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Benzimidazole Compounds: Relationship with Oxidative Stress Mediated Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hind Limb

$71.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:

Abstract:

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury is a pathophysiological process consisting of a complex cascade characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and activated endothelial cells leading to cell damage and death. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of substituted 2- benzylbenzimidazole derivatives, 2-(3-methoxybenzyl)benzimidazole (BB3) and 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)benzimidazole (BB4), on I/R-induced changes in the markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in rats. BB3 and BB4 were synthesized with microwave irradiation and conventional Phillips methods. I/R was performed by occlusion of femoral artery. Catalase activity and reduced gluthatione (GSH) levels as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were measured in muscle tissues as an index for oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels as an index for angiogenesis were also measured in the muscle tissues and sera. I/R decreased GSH levels, increased catalase activity and VEGF levels, and did not change caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities compared to control groups. BB3 and BB4 caused a further decrease in GSH levels and increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in I/R group. These compounds caused a further increase in catalase activity and prevented the increase in VEGF levels induced by I/R. These data suggest that BB3 and BB4 exhibit apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activity with pro-oxidative effects resulting in oxidative stress in pathophysiological process of I/R-induced hind limb injury in rats.

Keywords: Apoptosis; VEGF; benzimidazole; hind limb; ischemia; oxidative stress; rat

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152312804142795

Publication date: December 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design for the discovery of new Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents.

    Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Medicinal Chemistry.

    Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents drug discovery.
Related content

Tools

Favourites

Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more