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Efficacy and Safety of H1-Antihistamines: An Update

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Abstract:

H1-antihistamines are inverse agonists that combine with and stabilize inactive conformation of H1-receptors. Thus they interfere with actions of histamine at H1-receptors. They are widely used for treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria, coughs, colds and insomnia. H1-antihistamines are classified as older ‘first generation’ and newer ‘second generation’. First generation H1-antihistamines have poor receptor H1-receptor selectivity, and cross blood-brain-barrier. They have a lot of adverse events such as anti-muscarinic, anti-α-adrenergic, anti-serotonin, and sedative effects. In contrast, second generation H1-antihistamines were highly selective for the histamine H1-receptor, do not cross the blood brain barrier, and have minimal adverse events. The risks of first-generation H1-antihistamines have been clearly underestimated, particularly when purchased as nonprescribed over the counter medications by public. This review summarizes curent literature to evaluate antihistamines including their mechanism, indications and side-effects.

Keywords: Adverse events; allergic rhinitis; antihistamine(s); atopic dermatitis; cardiotoxicity; histamine; pharmacology; receptor; sleep; urticaria

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152312804142713

Publication date: December 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design for the discovery of new Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents.

    Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Medicinal Chemistry.

    Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents drug discovery.

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