Abstract— In advance of a comprehensive systematic study of New World Mucuna, we provide a taxonomic revision of the species of Mucuna that occur in Brazil. A new species, Mucuna analucianae, endemic to eastern and central Brazil, is described
and illustrated. Mucuna huberi is designated as a synonym of M. elliptica, and a lectotype for M. elliptica is chosen. Mucuna pluricostata is considered to be a synonym of M. pruriens, and a lectotype for M. pluricostata is chosen. Mucuna eriocarpa
is excluded from the genus. We recognize seven species of Mucuna in Brazil, only two of which are endemic to the country. Two of the seven species are assessed as endangered (EN) according to IUCN criteria.