Five new species of Paepalanthus section Diphyomene are described and illustrated: P. brevis, P. flexuosus, P. longiciliatus, P. macer, and P. stellatus. Paepalanthus brevis, similar to P.
decussus, is easily distinguished by its short reproductive axis, and pilose and mucronate leaves. Paepalanthus flexuosus, morphologically related to P. urbanianus, possesses a distinctive short and tortuous reproductive axis. Paepalanthus longiciliatus, morphologically
similar to P. weddellianus, possesses long trichomes on the margins of the reproductive axis bracts, considered a diagnostic feature. Paepalanthus macer shares similarities with P. amoenus, differing by its sulfurous capitula and adpressed reproductive axis bracts. Paepalanthus
stellatus also has affinity with P. decussus, but possesses unique, membranaceous, reproductive-axis bracts and a punctual inner-capitulum arrangement of pistillate flowers. Four of the described species are narrowly distributed in the state of Goiás, whereas P. brevis
is endemic to Distrito Federal. All are considered critically endangered. Detailed comparisons of these species are presented in tables. Comments on phenology, distribution, habitat and etymology, along with an identification key, are provided.