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Phylogeny and Phylogenetic Nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an Expanded Sample of Genes and Taxa

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Abstract:

Previous attempts to resolve relationships among the primary lineages of Campanulidae (e.g. Apiales, Asterales, Dipsacales) have mostly been unconvincing, and the placement of a number of smaller groups (e.g. Bruniaceae, Columelliaceae, Escalloniaceae) remains uncertain. Here we build on a recent analysis of an incomplete data set that was assembled from the literature for a set of 50 campanulid taxa. To this data set we first added newly generated DNA sequence data for the same set of genes and taxa. Second, we sequenced three additional cpDNA coding regions (ca. 8,000 bp) for the same set of 50 campanulid taxa. Finally, we assembled the most comprehensive sample of campanulid diversity to date, including ca. 17,000 bp of cpDNA for 122 campanulid taxa and five outgroups. Simply filling in missing data in the 50-taxon data set (rendering it 94% complete) resulted in a topology that was similar to earlier studies, but with little additional resolution or confidence. In contrast, the addition of the ca. 8,000 bp of sequence data provided resolution and support for a number of relationships. With the addition of many more campanulid taxa we recovered a well-resolved phylogeny for Campanulidae where, with the exception of the placement of Escalloniaceae, support was high for all major clades. In addition, we were able to confidently place a number of enigmatic taxa, some whose relationships were previously unresolved and some never before included. In light of these results, we briefly expand the discussion of floral symmetry and provide a phylogenetic classification of Campanulidae with phylogenetic definitions for all well-supported major clades.

Keywords: ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY; ASTERIDAE; CAMPANULIDAE; EUASTERID II; PHYLOGENETIC NOMENCLATURE

Document Type: Regular Paper

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1600/036364410791638306

Publication date: 2010-06-01

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