The monophyly of Campylopus and its relationships to other genera of the Dicranaceae-Campylopodioideae, especially Bryohumbertia and Pilopogon, have been ambiguous. To evaluate inter- and intrageneric relationships of Campylopus, maximum parsimony and maximum
likelihood calculations of sequences from the chloroplast DNA (trnTUGU–trnLUAA spacer/ trnLUAA5' exon/trnLUAA intron, atpB – rbcL spacer) and the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1/5.8S/ITS2/partial
26S) were performed. Analyses of the cpDNA sequences and the more conserved nrDNA parts (5.8S, partial ITS1, ITS2 and 26S) confirm the monophyly of a clade comprising the Campylopodioideae plus Leucobryum (Leucobryaceae), as proposed by previous molecular studies. Monophyly of Campylopus,
including Bryohumbertia, and a sistergroup relationship to Pilopogon are also strongly supported by the cpDNA data. Relationships within Campylopus are only partially resolved due to low sequence variability in the cpDNA and homoplastic substitutions and indels. The present
division of Campylopus into three subgenera is not supported by the molecular trees.