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Fluorescence Glucose Monitoring Based on Transduction of Enzymatically-Driven pH Changes Within Microcapsules

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Abstract:

This work explores a novel approach to transducing changes in glucose concentration by fluorescence sensing of local microscale changes in pH resulting from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of glucose within small reaction vessels. Synthetic and natural polyelectrolytes were used to fabricate biocompatible microcapsules (5 m mean diameter) using acid-dissolvable melamine formaldehyde (MF) templates. The resulting microcapsules had a cationic internal matrix comprising chitosan, poly(vinyl sulfate), and MF oligomers, which was used to electrostatically absorb anionic glucose oxidase (GOx) labeled with a pH-sensitive dye (pyrene 8-hydroxy-1,4,6-trisulfonylchloride). The ratiometric variation of excitation spectra in response to changes in pH was monitored as a function of glucose concentration. In vitro tests of the sensors in buffered solutions proved that internal pH changes resulting from the GOx-catalyzed glucose oxidation could be observed in response to sequential additions of glucose in the physiological region of interest (0–30 mM). The preliminary results demonstrate potential for this sensing approach, warranting further experimentation for validation of sensor function and reversibility. A potential application of these sensors is for minimally-invasive monitoring of glucose by diabetics by implantation in the dermis of the skin ("smart tattoos").

Keywords: ENZYME ENCAPSULATION; GLUCOSE SENSORS; LAYER-BY-LAYER SELF-ASSEMBLY; POLYELECTROLYTE MICROCAPSULES

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/sl.2006.062

Publication date: December 1, 2006

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