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We have investigated the reflow behavior of phosphorus silicate glass (PSG) layer formed on textured Si surface using transmission electron microscopy and simulation. For conventional wet oxidation process, stress-dependent surface reaction and stress-dependent oxidant diffusion led
to the oxidation retardation in both convex and concave regions of the textured Si surface, respectively. However, PSG film formed by POCl3-diffusion underwent reflow, resulting in the formations of thinner and thicker PSG films in convex and concave regions, respectively. Simulation
results showed that the reflow of PSG films causes lateral thermal mismatch stresses to increase and decrease in convex and concave regions, respectively.
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