Nanoscale Shuffling in a Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Binary Colloidal Particles
Abstract:We have fabricated a square lattice array of sub-micrometer fluorescent (red and green) polystyrene particles. The particles were each embedded into small pits fabricated on a silicon substrate by electron beam lithography, through the drying process of an aqueous suspension containing equal amounts of the two species. We indexed 0 and 1 for each red and green particle, respectively, and then obtained a one-dimensional bit sequence by the successive reading of the indices in a predetermined manner. We evaluated the randomness of the bit sequence by using the improved FIPS 140-2 statistical test suite. Consequently, we found that the bit sequences do not have any non-randomness. The particle array was obtained by a very simple process, i.e., the drying of a suspension, but the particle distribution pattern was definitely unpredictable and irreproducible, and the number of possible patterns was tremendously large. The signal—i.e., the color of the particle—does not deteriorate within a practical timescale under various conditions, such as in an electric field, in a magnetic field, in air or water, on a solid matrix, and so on, which means that a small tip with the particle pattern can be installed in miscellaneous object, including electronic products, plastic credit cards, currency bills, and so on. Therefore, this particle array is applicable to a nanoscale identification tag or a one-time pad encryption tip.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-03-01
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