Tin-Doped Rutile Titanium Dioxide Nanowires: Luminescence, Gas Sensor, and Field Emission Properties
Abstract:Sn-doped rutile TiO2 nanowires were synthesized by a thermal reactive evaporation route. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging reveals that the Sn-doped TiO2 nanowires exhibited diameters of 80–150 nm and 2–3 microns in length. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging makes it possible to observe that Sn-doped TiO2 nanowires show a certain lattices fringe of ∼0.32 nm, which demonstrates that the nanowires are single crystalline with rutile structure and grow along the  axis. Cathodoluminescence (CL) reflected that on the surface of Sn-doped TiO2 nanowires, many oxygen vacancies and defect states were formed during the crystal growth. These defect states raised a broad emission peak around the red-orange band. The ethanol sensing properties of Sn-doped rutile TiO2 nanowires at a temperature of 190 °C for the ethanol concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 500, and 600 ppm, correspond to the sensor' sensitivity of 7, 12, 18, 19, 23, and 26%, respectively. The sensitivity increased with an increase in the ethanol concentration. As-synthesized TiO2 nanowires revealed a turn-on field, ∼5.1 V/μm, at a current density of 1 μAcm−2.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2012
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