Sub-Micrometer Particles Produced by a Low-Powered AC Electric Arc in Liquids
The article presents the report of the production of composites of sub-micrometer metal particles in matrix consisted of the metal compounds by means of an AC electric arc in water and paraffin solutions using electrodes carbon–metal and metal–metal (metal: Ni, Fe, Co, Cu). The advantage of this method is the low electric power (from 5 to 10 W) needed in comparison to standard DC arc-discharge methods (0.8 to 3 kW). This method enables the production of particles from conductive material also in wide range of temperature and in solvent which could be either transparent to light or opaque. Moreover the solvent can be electrolyte or insulating liquid. The microstructure of the composite layer was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray. During particles production in water metal oxides were created. Additionally using cobalt–copper, nickel–copper as couple electrodes, insoluble in water copper (II) hydroxide crystal grains were created additionally which crystals shape was depended on transition metal. For iron–copper couple electrodes system the copper (II) hydroxide was not formed. Experiments with sequence production of Ni and Fe particles with C electrode assisting in molten paraffin let to obtain both Ni and Fe particles surrounded by paraffin. After solidification the material was insulator but if locally magnetic field influenced on the liquid solution in that place after solidification a new composite was created which was electric current conductor with resistivity around 0.1 Ω·m, was attracted by magnetic field and presented magneto resistance around 0.4% in changing magnetic field in a range 150 mT. After mixing the concentrated paraffin with normal paraffin resistivity of the mixture increased and it became photosensitive and created small voltage under light influence.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-01-01
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