TiO2 Coating of High Surface Area Silica Gel by Chemical Vapor Deposition of TiCl4 in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor
TiO2 was deposited on high surface area porous silica gel (400 m2g−1) in a fluidized bed reactor. Chemical vapor deposition was employed for the coating under vacuum conditions with TiCl4 as precursor. Nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were applied to characterize the obtained TiO2–SiO2 composites with different Ti loadings up to 5 wt%. Only a slight decrease in the specific surface area was detected at low Ti loadings. At a Ti loading of 2 wt%, TiO2 was found to be highly dispersed on the SiO2 surface likely in form of a thin film. At higher Ti loadings, two weak reflections corresponding to anatase TiO2 were observed in the diffraction patterns indicating the presence of crystalline bulk TiO2. High resolution XPS clearly distinguished two types of Ti species, i.e., Ti–O–Si at the interface and Ti–O–Ti in bulk TiO2. The presence of polymeric TiO x species at low Ti loadings was confirmed by a blue shift in the UV-vis spectra as compared to bulk TiO2. All these results point to a strong interaction between the TiO2 deposit and the porous SiO2 substrate especially at low Ti loadings.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2011-09-01
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