Intracellular Delivery of Etoposide Loaded Biodegradable Nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake Studies

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Abstract:

The preferred delivery systems for anticancer drugs would be the one which would have selective and effective destruction of cancer cells. In the present study etoposide (ETO) loaded nanoparticles (NP) were prepared using PLGA (ETO-PLGA NP), PLGA-MPEG block copolymer (ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP) and PLGA-Pluronic copolymer (ETO-PLGA-PLU NP) and they were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies using two cancer cell lines, L1210 and DU145. The IC50 values for L1210 cells were 18.0, 6.2, 4.8 and 5.4 μM and for DU145 cells the IC50 values were 98.4, 75.1, 60.1 and 71.3 μM for ETO, ETO-PLGA NP, ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP respectively. The increased cytotoxicities were attributed to increased uptake of the NPs by the cells. Moreover the ETO loaded PLGA-MPEG NP and PLGA-Pluronic NP showed a sustained cytotoxic effect till 5 days on both the cell lines. Results of the long term cytotoxicity study concluded that the drug loaded PLGA nanoparticulate formulations were efficient in decreasing the viability of the L1210 cells over a period of three days, whereas the pure drug exerted its maximum efficiency on the day one itself. Z-stack confocal images of NPs showed fluorescence activity in each section of DU 145 and L1210 cells indicating that the nanoparticles were internalized by the cells. The study concluded that ETO loaded PLGA NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared with that of the free drug and ETO-PLGA-MPEG NP and ETO-PLGA-PLU NP had higher cell uptake efficiency compared with that of ETO-PLGA NP. The developed PLGA based NPs shows promise to be used for cancer therapy.

Keywords: BIODEGRADABLE NANOPARTICLES; CELLULAR UPTAKE; CYTOTOXICITY; ETOPOSIDE

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.4225

Publication date: August 1, 2011

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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