Filling Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with WO3 and W Nanowires via Confined Chemical Reactions
Carbon nanotubes filled with metals and semiconductors have been regarded as one of the most promising materials for nanodevices. Here, we demonstrate a simple and effective method to produce tungsten trioxide (WO3) and tungsten (W) nanowires with diameters of below 4 nm inside double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). First, the precursors, i.e., phosphotungstic acid (HPW, H3PW12O40) molecules, are successfully introduced into DWCNTs. Subsequent decomposition and reduction lead to the formation of WO3 and W nanowires inside DWCNTs. The products were carefully characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. FTIR spectra provide a direct proof that the HPW molecules enter the DWCNTs as an ionic state, i.e., PW12O3−40 and H+, instead of the molecular state. HRTEM analysis shows that the diameter of the WO3 nanowires inside DWCNTs is 1.1–2.4 nm with the average length of 16–18 nm, and that for W nanowires is 1.2–3.4 nm with the average length of 15–17 nm. Meanwhile, DWCNTs are doped by the encapsulated WO3 and W nanowires. Tangential band shift in Raman spectra revealed the charge transfer between the nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2011-03-01
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