Vulcanization Characteristics and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Natural Rubber Reinforced with Silane Modified Silica
Abstract:Two silane coupling agents were used for hydrolysis-condensation reaction modification of nanosilica surfaces. The surface characteristics were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The vulcanization kinetics of natural rubber (NR) + silica composites was studied and compared to behavior of the neat NR using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the dynamic scan mode. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was performed to evaluate the effects of the surface modification. Activation energy Ea values for the reaction are obtained. The presence of silica, modified or otherwise, inhibits the vulcanization reaction of NR. The neat silica containing system has the lowest cure rate index and the highest activation energy for the vulcanization reaction. The coupling agent with longer chains causes more swelling and moves the glass transition temperature Tg downwards. Below the glass transition region, silica causes a lowering of the dynamic storage modulus G', a result of hindering the cure reaction. Above the glass transition, silica—again modified or otherwise—provides the expected reinforcement effect.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2011-03-01
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