Living cells were used to demonstrate the potential biological applications of the apertureless SNOM when operating under fluid. An oral epithelial squamous cell carcinoma cell line (H357) was imaged under physiological-like conditions using apertureless SNOM following staining with FITC-Phalloidin which preferentially stains intracellular actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Compared with simultaneously obtained AFM topographic image, the apertureless SNOM data provides greater detail on these cellular structures and the spatial resolution of the apertureless SNOM fluorescence image appears to be about 100 nm.
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