In order to enhance the elongation at break, the ablation resistant properties as well as the tensile strength of the thermal insulating materials, organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) was introduced into the short aramid fibers reinforced Ethylene–Propylene–Diene Monomer (EPDM) based nanocomposites. The effects of OMMT content on the mechanical and ablative properties of the nanocomposites were investigated systematically. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm that EPDM-matrix has been intercalated into OMMT interlayers after a mixing process on a two-roll mill. The brittle fracture of nanocomposites also indicates that OMMT can lubricate aramid fiber to weaken the interfacial adhesive strength between the fibers and the matrix. As a result, the tensile strength and elongation at break are both improved sharply with OMMT content increasing from 1 phr to 7 phr. However, thanks to the inevitable agglomeration of OMMT with high loading inside the nanocomposites, the tensile strength and elongation at break reduce gently once OMMT is over 7 phr. Furthermore, the ablation resistant properties are improved greatly by increasing OMMT from 1 phr to 11 phr. Therefore, the optimal content of OMMT is 7–11 phr for the thermal insulating nanocomposites with big elongation and excellent ablation resistant properties.
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