Application of Conventional and Microbeam Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption for the Characterization of Human Nails
Abstract:The synchrotron radiation based spectroscopies X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption fine structure are used to detect illness-related changes in the elemental distribution and bonding environment of metals in human nails. The effective atomic number of a collection of nails is determined using two methods, the X-ray transmittance and the scattering method, and is found equal to 7.5 ± 0.5. X-ray fluorescence maps of the elemental distributions, recorded with a lateral resolution of 5 m, reveal that S, Ca and Zn are distributed homogeneously while Fe tends to cluster. In the Fe-rich clusters, which have a diameter in the range 15–30 m, the Fe concentration is 10 times higher than in the matrix. The Zn K edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra reveal that Zn, in the nails from healthy donors and patients suffering from lung diseases, is four-fold coordinated with N and S and the Zn–N and Zn–S distances are equal to 2.03 Å and 2.25 Å, respectively. Finally the signature of various bonds in the C–, O– and N–K near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra is discussed.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 2010
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