Decrease in Work Function of Transparent Conducting ZnO Thin Films by Phosphorus Ion Implantation
To confirm the possibility of engineering the work function of ZnO thin films, we have implanted phosphorus ions into ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The fabricated films show n-type characteristics. It is shown that the electrical and optical properties of those thin films vary depending sensitively on the ion dose and rapid thermal annealing time. Compared to as-deposited ZnO films, the work-function of phosphorus ion-implanted ZnO thin films is observed to be lower and decreases with increasing ion doses. It is likely that the zinc or oxygen vacancies are firstly filled with the implanted phosphorus ions. With further increased ions, free electrons are generated as Zn2+ sites are replaced by those ions or interstitial phosphorus ions increase at the lattice sites, the fermi level by which approaches the conduction band and thus the work function decreases. Those films exhibit the optical transmittance higher than 85% within the visible wavelength range (up to 800 nm).
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-09-01
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