Decaarginine-PEG-Artificial Lipid/DNA Complex for Gene Delivery: Nanostructure and Transfection Efficiency
Oligoarginine conjugates are highly efficient vectors for the delivery of plasmid DNA into cells. Decaarginine-conjugated lipid (Arg10-PEG-lipid) was synthesized and the effects of Arg10-PEG-lipid concentration at a fixed DNA concentration on transfection efficiency and the structure of the complexes were studied below and above critical micelle concentration (CMC), and at the lipid nitrogen/DNA phosphate (N/P) ratio corresponding to transfection, respectively. Arg10-PEG-lipid at the concentration below CMC showed stronger interaction with DNA by fluorescence intensity distribution analysis, and significantly higher luciferase and green fluorescent protein expression than that above CMC. A phase-contrast cryo-transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM) experiment showed that the morphology of the complexes depended on the N/P ratio. At a low N/P ratio corresponding to that in transfection at a lipid concentration below CMC, a net-like structure developed in which plasmid DNA was involved. A further increase in the N/P ratio, a large fibrous nanostructure of complexes, was also observed. Without DNA, these structures were not obtained. The cellular uptake mechanism of complexes using flow cytometry with inhibitors suggested that complexes with two different morphologies showed similar cellular uptake and uptake mechanism, macropinocytosis. Differences in transfection efficiency of the complexes may be explained by a large fibrous nanostructure inhibiting the cellular internalization of complexes or the release of DNA from macropinosomes into cytoplasm. Arg10-PEG-lipid/DNA complexes formed a favorable nanostructure for gene delivery, depending on the N/P ratio in water.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-05-01
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