Size Dependent Magnetization and High-Vacuum Annealing Enhanced Ferromagnetism in Zn1−xCoxO Nanowires

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Diameter controllable ZnO nanowires have been fabricated by thermal evaporation (vapor transport) with various sizes of gold nanoparticles as catalysts. Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Zn1−xCoxO nanowires were then made by high energy Co ion implantation. The as-implanted and the argon-annealed Zn1−xCoxO nanowires displayed weak ferromagnetism while the high-vacuum annealed nanowires exhibited strong ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Size dependent behavior has been observed in the magnetic field and temperature dependences of magnetization. The shrinkage of the nanowire diameter reduced the spontaneous magnetization as well as the hysteresis loops. Field cooled and zero-field cooled magnetization and coercivity measurements were performed between 2 and 300 K to study the evolution of magnetism from the weak to the strong ferromagnetic states. In particular, superparamagnetic features were observed and shown to be intrinsic characteristics of the DMS Zn1−xCoxO nanowires. The room-temperature spontaneous magnetization of individual Zn1−xCoxO nanowires was also established by using magnetic force microscope measurements.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2008

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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