Ge Island Assembly on Metal-Patterned Si: Truncated Pyramids, Nanorods, and Beyond
Abstract:The organization of semiconductor nanostructures into functional macroassemblies remains a fundamental challenge in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the context of semiconductor epitaxial growth, efforts have focused on the application of advanced substrate patterning strategies for the directed assembly quantum-dot islands. We present a comprehensive investigation on the use of simple metal patterns to control the nucleation and growth of heteroepitaxial islands. In the Ge on Si model system, a square array of metal dots induces the assembly of Ge islands into an extensive two-dimensional lattice. The islands grow at sites between the metal dots and are characterized by unique shapes including truncated pyramids and nanorods, which are programmed prior to growth by the choices of metal species and substrate orientation. Our results indicate that ordering arises from the metal-induced oxidation of the Si surface; the oxide around each metal dot forms an array of periodic diffusion barriers that induce island ordering. The metals decorate the island surfaces and enhanced the growth of particular facets that are able to grow as a result of significant intermixing between deposited Ge and Si substrate atoms.
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2008-01-01
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