Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diels-Alder and Sandmeyer Reactions
Abstract:Random (L) and aligned (A) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified by Diels-Alder (DA) [4+2] cycloaddition, Sandmeyer (SM) reaction and by catalytic oxidation (OX). The properties of modified carbon nanotubes were studied by dispersability tests, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. The cycloaddition reaction could only be successfully performed with the L-MWNTs in molten and in solution state by using an aluminum chloride homogeneous catalyst. The efficiency and thermal stability of the solution phase cycloaddition were much higher than in the case of modification in the molten phase. The functionalization of both types of MWNTs by Sandmeyer reaction was carried out by copper(I) and iron(II) ions that helped in the radical decomposition of diazonium salts. Successful functionalization of nanotubes is achieved by a long decomposition time of the thermally activated diazonium salts. To the contrary, in the case of radical decomposition of diazonium salts, the time is not a decisive parameter. The dispersability tests have proved the changes in the physical features of modified carbon nanotubes depending on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character of the solvents. The presence of the modifying groups and their fragments from the functionalized MWNTs has been demonstrated by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). Relatively high concentration of sulfur atoms was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in nanotubes modified by sulfur substituent groups. In the case of catalytic oxidation, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic signal of oxygen bound to nanotubes showed considerable change as compared to pristine nanotubes. Due to the high thermal stability of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, the functionalized derivatives are applicable in several industrial fields.
Keywords: CATALYTIC OXIDATION; DIELS-ALDER AND SANDMEYER REACTION; DISPERSABILITY OF CARBON NANOTUBES; NMR SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE MODIFICATION OF NANOTUBES; THERMOGRAVIMETRY/MASS SPECTROSCOPY; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2007
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