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Immobilization of Biomaterials to Nano-Assembled Films (Self-Assembled Monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett Films, and Layer-by-Layer Assemblies) and Their Related Functions

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For utilization of highly sophisticated functions of biomaterials in nano-scale functional systems, immobilization of biomaterials on artificial devices such as electrodes via thin film technology is one of the most powerful strategies. In this review, we focus on three major organic ultrathin films, self-assembled monolayers (SAM), Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and layer-by-layer (LBL) assemblies, and from the viewpoints of biomaterial immobilization, typical examples and recent progresses in these film technologies are described. The SAM method allows facile contact between biomaterials and man-made devices, and well used for bio-related sensors. In addition, recent micro-fabrication techniques such as micro-contact printing and dip-pen nanolithography were successfully applied to preparation of biomaterial patterning. Amonolayer at the air–water interface, which is a unit structure of LB films, provides a unique environment for recognition of aqueous biomaterials. Recognition and immobilization of various biomaterials including nucleotides, nucleic acid bases, amino acids, sugars, and peptides were widely investigated. The LB film can be also used for immobilization of enzymes in an ultrathin film on an electrode, resulting in sensor application. The LBL assembling method is available for wide range of biomaterials and provides great freedom in designs of layered structures. These advantages are reflected in preparation of thin-film bio-reactors where multiple kinds of enzymes sequentially operate. LBL assemblies were also utilized for sensors and drug delivery systems. This kind of assembling structures can be prepared on micro-size particle and very useful for preparation of hollow capsules with biological functions.


Document Type: Review Article


Publication date: August 1, 2006

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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