This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electromagnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a nonlocal eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electromagnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron nonlocality and the standing electromagnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of nonrelativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
Publication date: October 1, 2002
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